The text, also supported by history, however, less highlights the constitutional requirements for the president`s relationship with other instruments of government that Congress creates, but which are not part of federal justice – that is, the plethora of “departments,” “agencies,” “administrations,” “boards of directors” and “commissions” that exist within the executive. In recent decades, there has been a great deal of strong commitment to the so-called “single executive” idea – in particular, Article II, by giving the president the enforcement power, prohibits Congress from extending that authority to persons or entities that are not subject to presidential control. Proponents of this uniform executive interpretation of Article II insist that the Constitution guarantee the President the powers of the president, which Congress must not limit, both the discharge of unelected executive directors as they see fit and the manner in which these officials exercise all the discretionary powers conferred on them by law. To give just one example, a Notice from the Reagan Administration`s Department of Justice argued that a law requiring the director of the Centers for Disease Control to organize the mass dispatch of AIDS information aircraft, free from executive oversight, violates the separation of powers by “unconstitutionally violating the authority of the president to oversee the executive branch.” Status for management monitoring of the Centers for Disease Control in the Distribution of an AIDS Pamphlet, 12 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 47 (1988). 1 Adopted on 26 May 1960 by 77 votes to 4; It was immediately followed by a request for reconsideration and, in the second vote, the treaty was rejected by 49 votes to 30; The second proposal for reflection was submitted on 27 May 1960, but it was not accepted; The treaty remained on the timetable of the Committee on Foreign Relations until the year 2000, when it was returned to the President. It remains to be seen how the contract clause cooperates with the rest of the listed and separate powers system. Missouri vs. Holland (1920) proposed that the treaty clause authorize contracts on matters that exceed the powers normally enumerated in the Constitution for the federal government.

In Reid v. The Court found, however, that treaties should not violate the provisions of the Constitution relating to individual rights. Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements.